By National Research Council, Transportation Research Board, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems, Committee to Assess Fuel Economy Technologies for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles
Applied sciences and methods to lowering the gas intake of Medium- and Heavy-Duty autos evaluates a variety of applied sciences and strategies which can increase the gas economic climate of medium- and heavy-duty autos, resembling tractor-trailers, transit buses, and paintings vehicles. The publication additionally recommends ways that federal enterprises may perhaps use to control those cars' gas intake. at present there are not any gasoline intake criteria for such automobiles, which account for approximately 26 percentage of the transportation gas utilized in the united states The miles-per-gallon degree used to control the gasoline economic climate of passenger autos. isn't really acceptable for medium- and heavy-duty automobiles, that are designed primarily to hold rather a lot successfully. in its place, any law of medium- and heavy-duty automobiles may still use a metric that displays the potency with which a motor vehicle strikes items or passengers, comparable to gallons in keeping with ton-mile, a unit that displays the volume of gasoline a motor vehicle might use to hold a ton of products one mile. this can be known as load-specific gasoline intake (LSFC). The ebook estimates the advancements that numerous applied sciences may possibly in attaining over the following decade in seven automobile kinds. for instance, utilizing complicated diesel engines in tractor-trailers may reduce their gas intake by means of as much as 20 percentage via 2020, and more suitable aerodynamics may perhaps yield an eleven percentage relief. Hybrid powertrains might reduce the gas intake of autos that cease usually, equivalent to rubbish vehicles and transit buses, through as a lot 35 percentage within the similar timeframe.
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Extra info for Technologies and Approaches to Reducing the Fuel Consumption of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles
The minimum occurs at low speeds for vehicles with a high ratio of drag to rolling resistance. In this way the minimum occurs at low speeds for automobiles and at high speed for heavily loaded large trucks. Figure 2-12 shows the results of Argonne National Laboratory’s PSAT (Power Train Systems Analysis Toolkit) simulations for steady-state operation of two classes of heavy-duty vehicles, with a clear minimum in fuel consumption. Vehicles in the real world do not operate at steady speed. For a given segment of activity, or for a cycle, it is therefore important to use the metric of average speed in discussing fuel use.
Unlike the makers of light-duty vehicles, which are dominated by a few very large companies (General Motors, Ford, and Toyota), manufacturers of trucks and buses are extremely varied in scale and depend on a web of suppliers, subcontractors, and service industries of all sizes and shapes. Even the largest builders of Class 8 trucks—Daimler, Navistar, PACCAR, and Volvo—each sell 18,000 to 80,000 units annually, and their relative market shares shift. For many medium-duty trucks, the manufacturer of record is essentially a body or equipment builder.
REPORT STRUCTURE This report begins with a summary of the key findings and recommendations. Chapter 1, the introduction, lays the factual background for the reader. Next, Chapter 2 provides vehicle fundamentals necessary for a thorough understanding of the topics addressed in the report. , European, and Asian approaches to fuel economy and regulations. Chapter 4 reviews and assesses power train technologies for reducing load-specific fuel consumption. Chapter 5 covers vehicle technologies for reducing load-specific fuel consumption.