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By Jean-Louis Vincent

The replace compiles the latest advancements in experimental and scientific examine and perform in a single complete reference booklet. The chapters are written via good famous specialists within the box of extensive care and emergency medication. it truly is addressed to all people concerned with inner drugs, anesthesia, surgical procedure, pediatrics, extensive care and emergency drugs.

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Sample text

4). MIMiC deliveries are computed as a set of 55 static fields at 5◦ intervals over a 270◦ arc (avoiding irradiation through the couch support). 8). 1◦ . The MIMiC does not measure the radiation output since this is assumed to be properly measured and governed by the accelerator’s own systems (Curran 1997). The sequential transaxial slices are ensured to be accurately abutting via the use of the CRANE (see later) and recently even noncoplanar arcs have been created with sequential slices (Salter and Hevezi 1999).

This confirms work which has also been performed by Rowbottom et al (2000b). Keller-Reichenbecher et al (1999b) have investigated the dependence of conformality on the number of fields and on the number of fluence strata for each field. They have studied two patients with head-and-neck tumours, and have used the inverse-planning system KONRAD and simple dose constraints without dosevolume constraints, given OARs with low volume effects. They first investigated three methods of fluence stratification: (i) applied after ten iterations followed by stopping at the eleventh; (ii) applied every iteration from the start; and (iii) applied every second iteration.

Here, P+ versus the number of beams with optimized orientations is shown for 81 Gy plans and 3–7 beams as well. Rectum and bladder NTCPs are considered in the calculation of P+ . 15. The biological score function S is plotted as a function of the number of equispaced beams (3–15 beams) for 70, 76 and 81 Gy plans. Here, S versus the number of beams with optimized orientations is shown for 81 Gy plans and 3–7 beams as well. Rectum and bladder NTCPs are considered in the calculation of S. ) 21 22 IMRT: general considerations (iii) nine-beam plans were required at the 81 Gy dose level; (iv) the score function S was a more sensitive discriminant since P+ did not control the NTCP values acceptably, giving equal weight to an x% change in TCP and NTCP; (v) beyond the quoted numbers of beams the score functions levelled out.

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