By Committee to Assess Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of
Ionizing Radiation, Board on Radiation Effects Research, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council
This ebook is the 7th in a chain of titles from the nationwide learn Council that addresses the consequences of publicity to low dose enable (Linear strength move) ionizing radiation and human overall healthiness. Updating details formerly provided within the 1990 e-book, "Health results of publicity to Low degrees of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR V", this ebook attracts upon new info in either epidemiologic and experimental examine. Ionizing radiation arises from either ordinary and man-made assets and at very excessive doses can produce harmful results in human tissue that may be glaring inside of days after publicity. notwithstanding, it's the low-dose exposures which are the point of interest of this e-book. So-called past due results, similar to melanoma, are produced decades after the preliminary publicity. This e-book is one of the first of its type to incorporate designated probability estimates for melanoma prevalence as well as melanoma mortality. "BEIR VII" deals an entire assessment of the on hand organic, biophysical, and epidemiological literature because the final BEIR document at the topic and develops the main up to date and entire danger estimates for melanoma and different wellbeing and fitness results from publicity to low-level ionizing radiation.
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Extra resources for Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII – Phase 2
It is of interest to compare the biophysical information and the experimental results to the radioepidemiologic evidence for health effects. Information from Radioepidemiology Numerous epidemiologic studies on medical cohorts have provided risk estimates that exhibit considerable variation. Many of these studies on patients relate to X-ray exposures, but there is no consistent epidemiologic evidence for higher risk factors from X-rays than from γ-rays. In fact, while the risk estimates from medical studies are not inconsistent with those for atomic bomb survivors, they tend to be, as a whole, somewhat lower (UNSCEAR 2000b).
Several cohort studies have reported health outcomes among persons exposed to environmental radiation. No consistent or generalizable information is contained in these studies. Results from environmental exposures to 131I have been inconsistent. The most informative findings are from studies of individuals exposed to radiation after the Chernobyl accident. Recent evidence indicates that exposure to radiation from Chernobyl is associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer and that the relationship is dose dependent.
It does not deal with densely ionizing radiation, such as heavy ions (including αparticles) and fast neutrons. Although neutrons need not be considered here on their own account, they must be accounted for in the analysis of the most important source of information on radiation risks, observations on the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Such analysis requires consideration of the relative biological effectiveness of neutrons. The following remarks deal with the RBE of neutrons in general terms.