By John P. Giesy, Keith R. Solomon
Reviews of Environmental illness and Toxicology makes an attempt to supply concise, severe reports of well timed advances, philosophy and important components of entire or wanted recreation within the overall box of xenobiotics, in any phase of our surroundings, in addition to toxicological implications.
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Extra info for Ecological Risk Assessment for Chlorpyrifos in Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems in the United States
Gomez calculated and presented the percent difference between his estimates and those of EPA. Although real differences existed between some numbers, many apparent differences resulted from averaging and different rounding methods. gov/). These surveys are not performed every year. The frequency is dependent upon the crop and typically varies from 3 to 5 y. Methods used by NASS are publically available; but, because they are required to protect individual privacy, data are aggregated in ways that sometimes hides useful information.
The model results fit the data well (SI Appendix C; SI Table C-2) (Bidlack 1979). The resulting rate constant represents the entire data set for each soil, optimized simultaneously and represents a consistent model across all the soils considered. This provides a better representation of the half-life than the values in the original reports. As noted above, it is expected that the rate constants might be correlated with the physical and chemical properties of the soils such as % organic matter, etc.
EPA (2011a) used an aqueous hydrolysis half-life of 81 d at pH 7 in modeling to estimate concentrations of CPY in drinking water. R. Solomon et al. reported from metabolism studies conducted in aerobic aquatic systems (Kennard 1996; Reeves and Mackie 1993). A half-life of 30 d was reported in an aqueous photolysis study of CPY that was conducted under natural sunlight in sterile pH 7 phosphate buffered solution (Batzer et al. 1990). Data on the dissipation of CPY from aquatic systems are summarized in SI Table A-5.