By John L. Massey
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Additional resources for Coffee: production, consumption and health benefits
Even though it is reasonably soluble in water at the temperatures used in beverage preparation, caffeine will also be present in spent coffee grounds, although in different amounts depending on the method of extraction applied to the roasted coffee. The antioxidant capacities of coffee and its processing residues are mostly attributed to the polyphenols, and the majority of phenolic compounds present in all these products and byproducts is comprised of chlorogenic acids. Chlorogenic acids are present in both free and bound forms, with bound chlorogenic acids (mostly to melanoidins in spent coffee grounds) being determined to be present in contents two times higher than those of free CGA.
This standard is quite common for filtered and espresso brews but not for soluble coffee, which is commonly produced from Coffea canephora species and with a darkerroasting degree. The preparation with the most common method would probably lead to different results, given that robusta coffee has greater AA than arabica coffee and that intense roasting process may lead to greater production of melanoidins, ultimately leading to an increase in the AA up until a certain point . A comparison with the literature is difficult due to the variability in preparation and raw material, in addition to the method selected for evaluation, with a great divergence of the AA of the brews.
Bertè,F. and Gazzani, G. (2000) In Vitro Antioxidant and ex Vivo Protective Activities of Green and Roasted Coffee, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48, 1449-1454. H. M. (2005) Peroxyl radical-scavenging activity of coffee brews, European Food Research and Technology, 221, pp. 471–477. , Siika-aho, M. T. (2008) Sediments in coffee extracts: composition and control by enzymatic hydrolysis, Food Chemistry, 110, 168– 176. , Krzykowski, A. and Rudy, S. (2015) Ground green coffee beans as a functional food supplement – Preliminary study, LWT - Food Science and Technology, 63, 691-699.