By Trudy M. Wassenaar
A finished, reader-friendly advent to the realm of bacteria
When most folk listen the notice "bacteria" they suspect of foodstuff poisoning; infections; and acute, debilitating, or deadly illnesses. but, whereas E. coli, strep, and different bacterial pathogens definitely reason their percentage of distress on this planet, they're just a tiny section of an enormous universe of microorganisms—the most elementary of existence types. with no them, not anything else may perhaps reside or develop on Planet Earth. Bacteria: The Benign, the undesirable, and the Beautiful introduces you to this various, microscopic global and explains the basic microbiological techniques you must discover the lifestyles and behaviour of micro organism. whether you haven't any earlier historical past within the topic, the book's transparent, jargon-free language tells you what you want to be aware of about:
* The origins and evolution of bacteria
* a number of the primary ways that micro organism have formed the world
* micro organism normally present in the fit human body
* Antibiotics and the becoming challenge of resistance
* Marine microbiology, bacterial pollution, and enzymes
* Bacterial genetics and genomics
* micro organism that live to tell the tale in severe environments, similar to boiling water
* and masses more
This complete consultant gains custom-drawn, black-and-white illustrations through artist Karoly Farkas, and it illuminates its issues via real-world examples and interesting tales. Discrete, topic-by-topic constitution, text-box summaries of historical past technological know-how, and a precious thesaurus make for fast and straightforward reference. no matter if you're a technological know-how expert wanting info on micro organism outdoors of your uniqueness, a scholar looking for a fantastic creation, or a curious reader trying to find attention-grabbing and trustworthy info, Bacteria: The Benign, the undesirable, and the Beautiful is the source you need.
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Extra info for Bacteria: The Benign, the Bad, and the Beautiful
Since it is not clear which of the last two properties is most desirable in the health context, it seems sensible to use at least one measure with each property. Among the common measures, this confines us to the variance for translation-independence; the choice is wider for scale-independence, but partly on the grounds of familiarity and partly because of the superiority of the distance concept involved, we shall select the Gini coefficient. Before we present the results, however, it should be noted that there have been other attempts to apply summary statistics of this kind to the problem of health inequality measurement, notably those of Preston, Haines and Pamuk (1981), Pamuk (1985) and Koskinen (1985).
What are the properties that it would be desirable for an inequality measure defined by age-at-death to possess? We may identify three. First, population independence. If we are comparing two distributions with different populations, but with the same proportion of the population dying at any given age, the inequality measure should remain unchanged. The desirability of this property should be readily apparent: if we are comparing changes in distribution over time, we do not want the results to be 'contaminated' by changes in the overall population size.
In the paper we have also explored the properties of other indices of inequality based on individuals rather than groups. We are clear that these indices do not address the same problems as that addressed by class death rates. In particular they do not pretend directly to measure the efforts of social and economic inequality. The only data fed into the calculations are the ages at death of individuals. The results are various measures of age at death and the distribution of death across the whole span of human lifetime.