By Frank G. Holz, Steffen Schmitz-Valckenberg, Richard F. Spaide, Alan C. Bird
This lavishly illustrated specified atlas presents a complete and up to date evaluation of FAF imaging in retinal ailments. It additionally compares FAF findings with different imaging thoughts equivalent to fundus photo, fluorescein- and ICG angiography in addition to optical coherence tomography.
General ophthalmologists in addition to retina experts will locate this a truly priceless advisor which illustrates normal FAF features of varied retinal ailments.
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Additional info for Atlas of Fundus Autofluorescence Imaging
7 Media Opacities FAF image quality can be significantly impaired by opacities anterior to fluorescent lipofuscin granules in the RPE, at the level of the cornea, the anterior chamber, the lens, or the vitreous. Media opacities can also result in abnormal, nontypical distributions of FAF intensities in the form of irregular shadows. Confusion or even false interpretation of FAF findings may result. Clinical findings and the patient’s history 46 Steffen Schmitz-Valckenberg et al. may give important clues to avoid this.
The open circles represent longitudinal measurements in one subject over a period of about 10 years 24 François Delori et al. 8 Near-Infrared FAF In addition to the FAF images recorded with short-wavelength excitation (SW-FAF) images, autofluorescence images with near-infrared (NIR) excitation can also be obtained (NIR-FAF images) [59, 60]. The confocal SLO (Heidelberg Retina Angiograph, HRA; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany) is operated in the indocyanine green (ICG) mode (excitation: 790 nm; detection above 800 nm) to produce a weak signal that is 60–100 times less intense than that obtained with SW-FAF imaging.
This is performed by customized image analysis software, which is based on sophisticated algorithms to automatically match retinal landmarks between different images. The more images used for calculation of the mean image, the more complicated and difficult the alignment of the images to each other gets. This can result in poor alignment and, finally, in lower image quality, with fuzzy borders of retinal structures, than if a smaller number of images is used. 1d). A further development in modern cSLO systems includes the ability to obtain mean images during the acquisition process (so-called real-time averaging).