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Kempf, and R. Srama, A salt-water reservoir as the source of a compositionally stratified plume on Enceladus, Nature 474:620-622, 2011. 12. R. M. Calvin, Condensed O2 on Europa and Callisto, The Astronomical Journal 124:3400-3403, 2002. 13. P. F. C. W. H. Nealson, Astrobiology and the potential for life on Europa, in Europa (R. Pappalardo, W. McKinnon, and K. , 2009. PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION 24 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Assessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Spacecraft Missions to Icy Solar System Bodies 4 A Geophysical Perspective and Inventory of Habitable Environments on Icy Bodies The geophysical context of solar system objects constrains the potential propagation of terrestrial organisms with known minimal nutritional requirements and environmental tolerances outlined in Chapter 3.

4. P. G. M. Ellis, Microbial genomics and the periodic table, Applied and Environmental Microbiology 70:647-665, 2004. 5. T. Tyrrell, The relative influences of nitrogen and phosphorus on oceanic primary production, Nature 400:525-531, 1999. 6. K. Takai, K. Toki, U. Tsunogal, M. Miyazaki, J. Miayazaki, H. Hirayama, S. Nakagawa, T. Nunouri, and K. Horikoshi, Cell proliferation at 122°C and isotopically heavy CH4 production by hyperthermophilic methanogen under high-pressure cultivation, Proceedings National Academy of Sciences USA 105:10949-10954, 2008.

J. Herndl, Microbial diversity in the deep sea and the under-explored “rare” biosphere, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 103(32):12115-12120, 2006. 5. A. M. G. M. R. A. L. Sogin. Microbial population structures in the deep marine biosphere, Science 318:97-100, 2007. 6. V. Kunin, A. Engelbrektson, H. Ochman, and P. Hugenholtz, Wrinkles in the rare biosphere: Pyrosequencing errors lead to artificial inflation of diversity estimates, Environmental Microbiology 12: 118-123, 2009.

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