By William G Andrew
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Extra resources for Applied Instrumentation in the Process Industries: Practical Guidelines
The minimum occurs at low speeds for vehicles with a high ratio of drag to rolling resistance. In this way the minimum occurs at low speeds for automobiles and at high speed for heavily loaded large trucks. Figure 2-12 shows the results of Argonne National Laboratory’s PSAT (Power Train Systems Analysis Toolkit) simulations for steady-state operation of two classes of heavy-duty vehicles, with a clear minimum in fuel consumption. Vehicles in the real world do not operate at steady speed. For a given segment of activity, or for a cycle, it is therefore important to use the metric of average speed in discussing fuel use.
Unlike the makers of light-duty vehicles, which are dominated by a few very large companies (General Motors, Ford, and Toyota), manufacturers of trucks and buses are extremely varied in scale and depend on a web of suppliers, subcontractors, and service industries of all sizes and shapes. Even the largest builders of Class 8 trucks—Daimler, Navistar, PACCAR, and Volvo—each sell 18,000 to 80,000 units annually, and their relative market shares shift. For many medium-duty trucks, the manufacturer of record is essentially a body or equipment builder.
REPORT STRUCTURE This report begins with a summary of the key findings and recommendations. Chapter 1, the introduction, lays the factual background for the reader. Next, Chapter 2 provides vehicle fundamentals necessary for a thorough understanding of the topics addressed in the report. , European, and Asian approaches to fuel economy and regulations. Chapter 4 reviews and assesses power train technologies for reducing load-specific fuel consumption. Chapter 5 covers vehicle technologies for reducing load-specific fuel consumption.