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By R. G. Collingwood

2014 Reprint of 1933 version. distinct facsimile of the unique variation, now not reproduced with Optical popularity software program. R. G. Collingwood (1889-1943) was once a British thinker and practising archaeologist top recognized for his paintings in aesthetics and the philosophy of background. Collingwood is the writer of 1 of an important treatises in meta-philosophy written within the first half the 20th century, "An Essay on Philosophical strategy" (1933), that's a sustained try to clarify why philosophy is an self sustaining self-discipline with a particular strategy and subject material that vary from these of the ordinary and the precise sciences.

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INTRODUCTION no conclusion. Why then should we pursue it? Because, says Kant, it is a useful gymnastic, in which reason comes to know itself better. This amounts to saying that the true end of reason is to come to a knowledge of itself, to become aware of its own pO\ver and limitations, in a word to master the lessons of the critical philosophy, and that metaphysical argument is of value only as an introduction to this. The relition between the two kinds of philosophy has here suffered a complete inversion: originally criticism was to be the propaedeutic to metaphysics and give it the means of progressing; here metaphysics is the propaedeutic to criticism, and expires when criticism appears on the scene; for, as Kant himself remarks, the growth of criticism is bound to bring metaphysical controversy to a close.

Mi nd, for the scientist, in this case the psychologist, is the nam e of one limited class of thin gs outside wh ich lie thin gs of oth er kin ds; for the spiritualistic philosopher, it is a name, per hap s the bes t or onl y name, for all reality. Evolution, for the biolog ist, is the way in which species of living organisms came into bei ng; for the philosopher, it is eith er a thi ng of no phi losophical inte res t or else a cosm~c process at work wherever any thin g specific has its origin.

The same liabilitj"to overlap may be seen in the other divisions of the judge ment.. The singular judgement, for syllogistic purposes, is regarded as a universal; and in fact it does combine universal and particular elements. The disjunctive is both categorical and hypothetical. And as for modality, a state of things which is not possible cannot be actual, nor can. it very well help being actual if it is neces13ary. So /also in the classification of inferences. Aristotle gives us an inductive syllogism; Mill a deductive mefhod of induction.

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