By Andrew Hodges
It is barely a moderate exaggeration to claim that the British mathematician Alan Turing (1912-1954) stored the Allies from the Nazis, invented the pc and synthetic intelligence, and expected homosexual liberation through decades--all earlier than his suicide at age 41. This vintage biography of the founding father of machine technology, reissued at the centenary of his delivery with a considerable new preface through the writer, is the definitive account of a unprecedented brain and lifestyles. A gripping tale of arithmetic, desktops, cryptography, and gay persecution, Andrew Hodges's acclaimed ebook captures either the interior and outer drama of Turing's life.
Hodges tells how Turing's innovative suggestion of 1936--the notion of a common machine--laid the basis for the trendy computing device and the way Turing introduced the assumption to sensible consciousness in 1945 together with his digital layout. The ebook additionally tells how this paintings was once without delay with regards to Turing's best function in breaking the German Enigma ciphers in the course of international conflict II, a systematic triumph that was once serious to Allied victory within the Atlantic. while, this is often the tragic tale of a guy who, regardless of his wartime carrier, used to be ultimately arrested, stripped of his protection clearance, and compelled to endure a humiliating remedy program--all for attempting to stay truthfully in a society that outlined homosexuality as a crime.
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Extra resources for Alan Turing: The Enigma (Centenary Edition)
France and America, 1934–1971 (London: Jonathan Cape, 2006), 465. 6. “One would doubt that the octogenarian composer had any need to exhibit a feigned devotion to his roots in order to find favor with his hosts. ” Margarita Mazo, “Stravinsky’s ‘Les Noces’ and Russian Village Wedding Ritual,” Journal of the American Musicological Society 43/1 (Spring 1990): 100. 7. ,” Komsomol’skaya Pravda, 27 September 1962, quoted in Richard Taruskin, Stravinsky and the Russian Traditions: A Biography of the Works Through Mavra (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996), 1:13.
Alas, eight days later, Mavra plunges the public back into uncertainty, and this time the critics and musicographers lose their heads. The most stunned of all must have been Stravinsky himself, reading the pile of idiocies and nonsense written about Mavra by reputedly intelligent people. Mavra was not understood because Stravinsky had changed again, and this time the turnaround was quicker and sharper than ever. Mavra is clear, lucid, and contains nothing disorienting. • 35 • WHO OWNS MAVRA? The little opéra-comique in question is intellectually contrary and opposed to the preceding works.
Mavra may have vanished because of the unresolved questions it raises about nation, race, and gender, which have led it to fit uncomfortably within the framework of neoclassicism that has served for decades to define Stravinsky’s second-period style. Musicologists have favored Stravinsky’s canonic ballet Pulcinella as a much more emblematic work of neoclassicism—a broad stylistic category that describes modernist compositions that borrow techniques or styles of music from the past. ”4 I would go a step further than Taruskin and argue that neoclassicism may be an altogether misleading word to describe Stravinsky’s music between the wars.