By Justin A. Daniels
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Extra info for Advances in Environmental Research, Volume 13
2003). g. Cryptosporidium (Keegan et al. 2003). However, outbreaks of waterborne illness can still occur in developed countries, because of malfunction or mismanagement of water treatment facilities (Ferguson et al. 2003). In these cases, hazard analyses protocols (microbiological hazards based on fecal coliforms (FC) and turbidity (TBY) as indicators) for critical control points (CCPs) within each facility may help to minimise the risk of contaminated water distribution in cases of system component failure, where CCPs include raw resource water, sedimentation, filtration and chlorinedisinfection (Jagals and Jagals 2004).
Zoonotic Cryptosporidium parvum and anthroponotic C. hominis are the major cause of human cryptosporidiosis, although other species including C. meleagridis, C. felis, C. canis, C. suis, C. muris and two corvine genotypes of Cryptosporidium have been associated with human gastroenteritis (Xiao and Ryan 2004; Caccio et al. 2005). Cryptosporidium can survive for months in a latent form outside hosts, as its oocysts retain their infectivity for several months in both salt and fresh water (Fayer et al.
Pestis) or occasionally via consumption of food products (especially vegetables, milk-derived products and meat) contaminated with infected urine or feces. An important property of Yersinia is its ability to multiply at temperatures close to 0 C (Skovgaard, 2007). g. Denmark, Yersinia interest and concern have declined (Skovgaard, 2007). , 2007). , 2007). , 2007). Giardia duodenalis and C. , 2007). , 2007). Waterborne parasites produce transmission stages which are highly resistant to external environmental conditions, and to many physical and chemical disinfection methods routinely used as bacteriocides in drinking water plants, swimming pools or irrigation systems (Gajadhar and Allen, 2004).