By Mikhail Baklanov, Paul S. Ho, Ehrenfried Zschech
Discovering new fabrics for copper/low-k interconnects is necessary to the continued improvement of computing device chips. whereas copper/low-k interconnects have served good, taking into consideration the production of extremely huge Scale Integration (ULSI) units which mix over one billion transistors onto a unmarried chip, the elevated resistance and RC-delay on the smaller scale has develop into a significant component affecting chip functionality.
Advanced Interconnects for ULSI Technology is devoted to the fabrics and strategies that may be appropriate replacements. It covers a wide variety of issues, from actual rules to layout, fabrication, characterization, and alertness of recent fabrics for nano-interconnects, and discusses:
- Interconnect capabilities, characterisations, electric houses and wiring necessities
- Low-k fabrics: basics, advances and mechanical houses
- Conductive layers and obstacles
- Integration and reliability together with mechanical reliability, electromigration and electric breakdown
- New methods together with 3D, optical, instant interchip, and carbon-based interconnects
Intended for postgraduate scholars and researchers, in academia and undefined, this e-book offers a serious evaluate of the permitting know-how on the center of the long run improvement of desktop chips.
Chapter 1 Low?k fabrics: fresh Advances (pages 1–33): Geraud Dubois and Willi Volksen
Chapter 2 Ultra?Low?k by means of CVD: Deposition and Curing (pages 35–77): Vincent Jousseaume, Aziz Zenasni, Olivier Gourhant, Laurent Favennec and Mikhail R. Baklanov
Chapter three Plasma Processing of Low?k Dielectrics (pages 79–128): Hualiang Shi, Denis Shamiryan, Jean?Francois de Marneffe, Huai Huang, Paul S. Ho and Mikhail R. Baklanov
Chapter four rainy fresh purposes in Porous Low?k Patterning strategies (pages 129–171): Quoc Toan Le, man Vereecke, Herbert Struyf, Els Kesters and Mikhail R. Baklanov
Chapter five Copper Electroplating for On?Chip Metallization (pages 173–191): Valery M. Dubin
Chapter 6 Diffusion limitations (pages 193–234): Michael Hecker and Rene Hubner
Chapter 7 technique Integration of Interconnects (pages 235–265): Sridhar Balakrishnan, Ruth mind and Larry Zhao
Chapter eight Chemical Mechanical Planarization for Cu–Low?k Integration (pages 267–289): Gautam Banerjee
Chapter nine Scaling and Microstructure results on Electromigration Reliability for Cu Interconnects (pages 291–337): Chao?Kun Hu, Rene Hubner, Lijuan Zhang, Meike Hauschildt and Paul S. Ho
Chapter 10 Mechanical Reliability of Low?k Dielectrics (pages 339–367): Kris Vanstreels, Han Li and Joost J. Vlassak
Chapter eleven electric Breakdown in complicated Interconnect Dielectrics (pages 369–434): Ennis T. Ogawa and Oliver Aubel
Chapter 12 3D Interconnect know-how (pages 435–490): John U. Knickerbocker, Lay Wai Kong, Sven Niese, Alain Diebold and Ehrenfried Zschech
Chapter thirteen Carbon Nanotubes for Interconnects (pages 491–502): Mizuhisa Nihei, Motonobu Sato, Akio Kawabata, Shintaro Sato and Yuji Awano
Chapter 14 Optical Interconnects (pages 503–542): Wim Bogaerts
Chapter 15 instant Interchip Interconnects (pages 543–563): Takamaro Kikkawa
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Extra info for Advanced Interconnects for ULSI Technology
Indd 18 12/20/2011 12:45:56 PM Low-k Materials: Recent Advances 19 desorbing organic template fragment, an unexpected result. 7 GPa. While the mesopores are again too big for application as a low-k dielectric material, UV curing appears as a novel path to the design of PSZ films with the desired mechanical, electrical and pore size distribution properties. In a more recent publication, post-deposition UV curing was combined with two silylation steps using 1,3,5,7-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (TMCTS) .
7 GPa. While the mesopores are again too big for application as a low-k dielectric material, UV curing appears as a novel path to the design of PSZ films with the desired mechanical, electrical and pore size distribution properties. In a more recent publication, post-deposition UV curing was combined with two silylation steps using 1,3,5,7-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (TMCTS) . 18. It is worth noting that no pore size distribution was reported in this paper . A different strategy to address the water adsorption in PSZ films is to synthesize organicfunctionalized PSZ MFI films (OF PSZ) .
Of course, the benefit of rapid testing turnaround provided by the RVDB will be lost. This discussion demonstrates that the RVDB distribution is a clear measure of the ‘initial quality’ of the capacitor population that can fail under TDDB stress, so that it is a necessary condition that RVDB distributions be clean and true. The graphic is adapted from J. E – 02 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 E-field (MV/cm) Plate 13 Dielectric Breakdown comparison is shown for different dielectrics. ; however, clear trend to lower breakdown performance with decreasing k-value is evident.