By James J. Reidy MD
Discusses the constitution and serve as of the cornea and exterior eye and reports correct exam ideas. Covers infectious and ocular floor ailments, problems and surgical procedure of the ocular floor, immune-mediated and neoplastic problems, congenital anomalies and degenerations. A lately up to date bankruptcy at the genetics of corneal dystrophies displays the hot IC3D class. Discusses poisonous and worrying accidents and corneal transplantation. includes many new colour photos. lately revised 2010 2011.
Read Online or Download 2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 8: External Disease and Cornea (Basic & Clinical Science Course) PDF
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Extra info for 2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 8: External Disease and Cornea (Basic & Clinical Science Course)
S-cm steps until it becomes rigid enough to allow the patient to feel its contact. This length is then recorded. EstheSiometry readings may vary with user technique, but in general a lower number, or shorter filament, indicates reduced corneal sensation. After the central cornea's sensitivity is measured, a map is produced of the cornea (and sometimes of the bulbar conjunctiva) by testing the superior, temporal, inferior, and nasal quadrants sequentially. Tvw noncontact esthesiometry methods have also been described, one using air, the other using air mixed with carbon dioxide.
Anterior Segment Photography External and Slit-Lamp Photography External eye photography is usually performed with a single-lens reflex camera. Magnification up to \:\ (life-size) can be obtained with a bellows, extension ring, or close-focUSing lens. Digital or 3S-mm cameras may also be attached with an adapter to a slit lamp and will produce excellent-quality images, particularly if used with external illumination. Slit-lamp photography and videophotog raphy allow a permanent record of most anterior segment conditions.
The major subclassification in this scheme, shown in Figure 3-3, separates dry-eye patients into those with ATD and those with evaporati ve tear dysfunction (ETD). The term environment is used broadly to include bod ily states habituall y experienced by an ind ividual both internall y and externally. Dry eye I I I I I Aq ueous-deficient I I I Sjogren syndrome dry eye Non-Sjogren dry eye I Primary I I I Secondary I deficiency Lacrimal, Evaporative I I J I I Lacrimal gland duct obstruction Reflex block I I Intrin sic III I Meibomian oil deficiency I I Disorders of lid Extrinsic I II I Vitamin A I deficiency I Preservatives Topical drUgS, I aperture I Contact lens 1 I Low blink I wear rate I Systemic drugs I Drug action I accutane Ocular surface disease (eg, allergy) Effect of the environment Internal Low blink rate behavior, VTU, microscopy Wide lid aperture gaze position Ag ing Low and rogen pool Systemic drugs: antihistamines, ~- blockers, antispasmodics, diuretics, and some psychotropic drugs External Low relative humidity High wind velocity Occupational environment Figure 3·3 Diagnostic classification scheme for dry-eye disorders.